Raphaël Lefèvre is a visiting fellow at the Carnegie Middle East Center, where his research focuses on Sunni Islamist movements in Lebanon. A Gates Scholar and a PhD candidate in politics and international relations at the University of Cambridge, Lefèvre is also an associate at the university's Center for the Study of the International Relations of the Middle East and North Africa. Lefèvre is the author of Ashes of Hama: The Muslim Brotherhood in Syria (Oxford University Press, 2013) and co-author of State and Islam in Baathist Syria: Confrontation or Co-Optation? (Lynne Rienner, 2012). His publications on Islamist movements in the Middle East and North Africa have appeared in the Guardian, the Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Sada, and the Journal of North African Studies.